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Published on:August 2018
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2018; 52(4s):s77-s85
Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijper.52.4s.79

Neuroprotective Functions of Alpinia galanga in Forebrain Ischemia Induced Neuronal Damage and Oxidative Insults in Rat Hippocampus

Authors and affiliation (s):

Ravi Mundugaru*1,2, Senthilkumar Sivanesan1, Padmaja Udaykumar3, Vidyadhara D J4, Suchitra Narayan Prabhu5, Basavaiah Ravishankar6

1Department of Research and Development, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamilnadu, INDIA.

2Department of Pharmacology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka 571 201, INDIA.

3Department of Pharmacology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, INDIA.

4Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Hosur road, Bangalore- 560029, Karnataka, INDIA

5Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, SDM Centre for Research in Ayurveda and Allied Sciences, Udupi, Karnataka, INDIA.

6Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, SDM Centre for research in Ayurveda and Allied Sciences, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, INDIA.


Introduction: The rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as greater galangal, a ginger substitute for food and was traditionally used as nervine tonic and stimulant. The present study was designed to screen the neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of rhizome of Alpinia galanga (HAAG) in transient forebrain ischemia induced neuronal damage and oxidative injury in the rat brain. Materials and Method: The transient forebrain ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in anesthetized rats for 60 min, followed by reperfusion injury. The transient forebrain ischemia induced neuronal damage and oxidative stress was assessed by estimating the percentage survival neurons in the Cornu ammonis CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus, MDA levels and antioxidant enzymes activities in the brain homogenate. Open field, actophotometer and grip strength tests were used for behavioral assessment. Recovery in spontaneous motor activity in actophotometer test and number of squares crossed and rearing behavior in the open field test are indicators of cognitive enhancement after treatment with Alpinia galanga. Results and Discussion: Treatment with Alpinia galanga attenuated the delayed neuronal death in the CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Reduced post-ischemic brain tissue MDA levels at both the drug doses and increased antioxidant enzyme such as glutathione peroxidase at a higher dose was also noted, which indicates Alpinia galanga is neuroprotective against ischemic hippocampal injury. The present study demonstrated that treatment with HAAG attenuated forebrain ischemic reperfusion induced neuronal injury and oxidative stress in hippocampus. Conclusion: Treatment with Alpinia galanga may have the potential to be used as a protective agent in forebrain ischemic injury.

Key words: Transient forebrain ischemia, Cornu ammonis, Oxidative stress, Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., lipid peroxidation, Actophotometer test.



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The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


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