Home | Articles
Published on:September 2023
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2023; 57(4):1150-1158
Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijper.57.4.113

Evaluation of Anti-Depressant Activity of spirulina, a blue-green algae on Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Depression in Rats

Authors and affiliation (s):

Girish Meravanige Basavarajappa1, Juturu Balaraju2, Nimbagal Raghavendra Naveen3, Prakash Goudanavar3, Vakkalagadda Siva Ganesh3,*, Sreeharsha Nagaraja4,5,*, Predeepkumar Narayanappa Shiroorkar1, Mallikarjun Telsang6

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, SAUDI ARABIA.

2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinsync Clinical Research Pvt. Ltd., Telangana, INDIA.

3Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology, Sri Adichunchanagiri College of Pharmacy, Adichunchanagiri University, B.G. Nagar, Karnataka, INDIA.

4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, SAUDI ARABIA.

5Department of Pharmaceutics, Vidya Siri College of Pharmacy, Off Sarjapura Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA.

6Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, SAUDI ARABIA.


Background: Depression is a crippling and pervasive illness that can affect a person in many different ways. It can be identified by certain symptoms, such as modifications in behaviour, psychological functioning, and brain physiology. Materials and Methods: One of the animal models for depression has been the Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS) paradigm. In this study, spirulina algae, which contains tryptophan, was chosen and tested for its anti-depressant effectiveness in the CUS model using Fluoxetine as the gold standard. Wistar rats were chosen to undergo the CUS process for 28 days, and throughout that time, the test drug was given at doses of 400 mg/kg. Results: Behavioural and biochemical parameters were analysed, and has shown significant changes. Conclusion: When compared to the CUS group, spirulina algae at the tested doses had a substantial impact on behavioural and metabolic testing. These findings demonstrated that Spirulina algae specifically exhibited an in vivo anti-depressant-like effect.

Keywords: Antidepressant, Spirulina algae, Force swim test, Tail suspensstion test, Sucrose preference test, Chronic Unpredictable Stress.



Impact Factor

IJPER - An Official Publication of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India is pleased to announce continued growth in the Latest Release of Journal Citation Reports (source: Web of Science Data).


Impact Factor® as reported in the 2023 Journal Citation Reports® (Clarivate Analytics, 2023): 0.8

The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


IJPER uses reference linking service using Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) by Crossref. Articles from the year 2013 are being assigned DOIs for its permanent URLs