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Published on:September 2022
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2022; 56(4):1232-1239
Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijper.56.4.205

Evaluation of Health-related Quality of Life among Hypertensive Post-menopausal Women Using EQ-5D in India During COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors and affiliation (s):

Thangamani Subramani1,*, Saravanan Kunchithapatham2, Sajeeth Chadappully Ismail1

1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Grace College of Pharmacy, Palakkad, Kerala, INDIA.

2Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.


Background: Hypertension and menopause are interrelated factors to determine the quality of life (QOL) in women. Covid-19 was related to massive public anxiety, it is critical to know the level of influence in such pandemics on QOL. So this present study was aimed to evaluate the variables related with poor HRQOL in hypertensive post-menopausal women during Covid-19 pandemic in India. Materials and Methods: Hypertensive postmenopausal women visiting the general medicine department were recruited in this study. Socio-demographics and clinical data were obtained by medical records and oral interview. EQ-5D-3L scale was included to evaluate the HRQOL and multivariate logistic regression model used to analyze the health dimensions. Results: The patient was shown the mean EQ-5D-3L index score of 0.409 and the visual analogue scale score of 78.9, respectively. The most commonly reported problem was anxiety/depression (80%) and pain/ discomfort (75.2%). The Logistic regression models analyzed that the severity of anxiety/depression with number of co morbidities (OR=0.487, 95% CI: 0.276- 0.854) and fear about to get covid-19 (OR=0.169, 95% CI: 0.051-0.569) increased significantly. Conclusion: Our study findings revealed the need of pharmaceutical care intervention programs for improving the mental health status in post-menopausal women during covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Hypertension, Post-menopausal women, QOL, EQ-5D, Anxiety.



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The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
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Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


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