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Published on:June 2022
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2022; 56(3):789-794
Original Article | doi: 10.5530/ijper.56.3.129

Carthamus tinctorius L. Inhibits Proliferation of Lung Cancer A549 Cells and Tender’s Mitochondrial Protection

Authors and affiliation (s):

Hamad Ghaleb Dailah

Research and Scientific Studies Unit, College of Nursing, Jazan University, Jazan, SAUDI ARABIA.


Background: Plant-based products are well-known as long-lasting chemo preventive and chemotherapeutic medicines against cancer. Objectives: The purpose of this research is to identify out how safflower extract affects A549 cells. Materials and Methods: The antiproliferative activity was determined using the Trypan blue assay, while the cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay. The ethidium bromide/acridine orange (AO/EB) dual staining method was used to observe the apoptotic inducing effect and the morphological assessment of A549 cells using phase contrast microscopy was studied to discern the nuclear changes if any on treatment with safflower. The mitochondrial membrane potential was studied using a cationic lipophilic dye rhodamine 123 under a confocal microscope, and oxidative stress was assessed using 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) labelling. Results: The trypan blue assay speculated that there was a decrease in cell viability at highest concentration and that the effect was dose-dependent. The MTT assay revealed that cytotoxicity increases in cells treated with higher concentration. The LC50 range of the sample was found at 250 µg/ml concentration at 52.2%, whereas the viability of the cell declined to 28.19% at 350µg/ml concentration. The morphological features like shrinkage, detachment, membrane blebbing, and distorted shape were observed on safflower treated A549 cells that supports the antiproliferative activity. The ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining substantiates that safflower extract induces apoptosis wherein the untreated A549 cells showed green fluorescence with intact nuclear morphology and cells treated with safflower extract (200 µg and 250 µg/ml), showed apoptotic bodies, clearly validating the apoptosis inducing effect by safflower on A549 cells. Also, the safflower extract protects the mitochondria by decreasing the oxidative stress and by altering the mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion: Thus, it is found that safflower extract exerts its antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis and protects mitochondria by combating oxidative stress.

Keywords: Safflower, Oxidative stress, Cytotoxicity, Mitochondria, Apoptosis.



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The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


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