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Published on:March 2022
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2022; 56(2):589-599
Original Article | doi:10.5530/ijper.56.2.82

In vivo Wound Healing Potential of Raloxifene Nanoemulsion Gel for the Management of Postmenopausal Cutaneous Wounds

Authors and affiliation (s):

Tej Pratap Singh1,*, Navneet Verma2, Farhan Jalees Ahmad3, Phool Chandra1, Gaurav Kumar Jain4

1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

2Pharmacy Academy, IFTM University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, INDIA.

4Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Pharmaceutical Science and Research University, New Delhi, INDIA.


Background: Depletion in estrogen level(s) especially in postmenopausal women is reported to have delayed wound healing effects; hence we have evaluated the wound healing potential of raloxifene in rat model. Objectives: Investigating the wound healing effects of raloxifene nanoemulsion for the management of postmenopausal cutaneous wounds. Materials and Methods: The optimized nanoemulsion gel contains 0.072% raloxifene hydrochloride. Female Wistar rats were used to investigate its wound healing effects. After three months of ovariectomy, wound healing effect was observed in terms of breaking strength, tensile strength, area of wound contraction, wound closure time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological changes. Results: The nanoemulsion gel exhibited better retention (34.31%) than its nanoemulsion. The raloxifene nanoemulsion gel has no erythema and no eschar formation recorded, and it is safe for topical use. In the incision wound model in ovariectomized rats, breaking (898±25g) and tensile strengths (4.47±0.12 g/mm2) in raloxifene treated groups were found to be higher than the untreated control group. Additionally, in ovariectomized rats, wound contraction was found to be 100% in the treated group s following 20 days of post-wounding, where as in control group only 88% was contraction was observed. Also, more hydroxyproline content in raloxifene treated ovariectomized rat was observed that recommend more collagen content than the untreated ovariectomized rat but approximately similar effects to untreated non-ovariectomized rats. Histopathological studies confirmed that the raloxifene treated groups had more re-epithelialization, neo-vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, and collagen deposition than the control group. Conclusion: These results confirms that the raloxifene nanoemulsion gel has significant wound healing potential, as observed in ovariectomized rats, which will be helpful in postmenopausal cutaneous wound healing.

Key words: Raloxifene, Nanoemulsion gel, Ovariectomized, Postmenopausal, Breaking strength, Wound contraction, Hydroxyproline, Histopathology.



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The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
(Registered under Registration of Societies Act XXI of 1860 No. 122 of 1966-1967, Lucknow)

Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (IJPER) [ISSN-0019-5464] is the official journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI) and is being published since 1967.


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